Where We Build

Cortez, Colorado

The city of Cortez is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and the most populous city of Montezuma County, Colorado, United States.[2] The city population was 8,482 at the 2010 census. It is a popular stop for tourists, who do not necessarily tour the city, but stay there because of its central location among surrounding attractions, such as Mesa Verde National Park, Monument Valley, and the Four Corners.

Contents

Geography

Cortez is located at 37°20′57″N 108°34′45″W (37.349270, -108.579225).[3]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles (14 km2), of which 5.5 square miles (14 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) (0.36%) is water. Cortez is located in the area of the southwest known as the “High Desert”, as are most of northwestern, western, southwestern, and southern Colorado.

Mesa Verde National Park, featuring Ancient Pueblo cliff dwellings, is situated southeast of Cortez.

Cortez is a local commercial center, competing with Durango in the east, and Farmington, New Mexico in the south, and draws trade from southeastern Utah, the extreme northeastern corner of Arizona, the Shiprock area of Northwestern New Mexico, and San Miquel, Dolores, Montezuma, and parts of LaPlata County in Colorado. Its economy is based very heavily on tourism, both to nearby Mesa Verde National Park as well as to San Juan National Forest, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands in the area (including Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, as well as the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe and Navajo Indian Reservations).

Demographics

As of the census[4] of 2010, there were 8,482 people, 3,590 households, and 2,234 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,449.9 people per square mile (560.0/km²). There were 3,885 housing units at an average density of 637.6 per square mile (246.3/km²). The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male (4,083) and 51.9% female (4,399). The racial makeup of the city was 79.2% White, 0.4% African American, 11.8% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 6.04% from other races, and 2.44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.30% of the population.

There were 3,590 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.0% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.8% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.92.

In the city, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $28,776, and the median income for a family was $35,533. Males had a median income of $30,755 versus $20,280 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,040. About 14.8% of families and 18.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.3% of those under age 18 and 17.3% of those age 65 or over.

History

The following sites are prehistoric sites in the Cortez area, several of which are listed on the Colorado State Register of Historic Properties and the National Register of Historic Places:[5][6]

* On the National Register of Historic Places listings in Montezuma County, Colorado.

+ Colorado State Register of Historic Properties

Miracle at Cortez

A Lockheed U-2 “Dragon Lady” reconnaissance aircraft made an emergency nighttime forced landing August 3, 1959, at the Cortez Municipal Airport almost nine months before Gary Powers was shot down over Russia. Major H. Mike Hua (now retired as General) was on a training flight originating at Laughlin AFB, Texas; the U-2 aircraft engine flamed out at 70,000 feet MSL. Maj. Hua established best glide and was able to navigate through a valley to a lighted airport that wasn’t on his map nor did he know of its existence beforehand. The airport was the only one in the area with a lighted runway which was illuminated overnight.[7][8][9][10][11] The aircraft in question, a U-2D, serial number 56-6721, is on display at Blackbird Airpark, adjacent to USAF Plant 42 at Palmdale, California. Major Hua was later awarded the U.S. Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross for his successful landing of the secret aircraft.

Transportation

Cortez Municipal Airport serves Cortez.

Content Source: Wikipedia

Durango/Bayfield, Colorado

History

The town was organized in September 1881 by the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad (D&RG) to serve the San Juan mining district. The D&RG chose a site south of Animas City for its depot after Animas City refused to pay a dowry to the D&RG. The city is named after Durango, Mexico, which was named after Durango, Spain. The word Durango originates from the Basque word “Urango” meaning “water town”.

Area archaeological sites on the State and National historical registers include:

It was one of the filming locations for City Slickers starring Billy Crystal.

Geography

Durango is located at 37°16′N 107°52′W at an elevation of 1988 metres (6512 feet). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.8 square miles (18 km2).

Attractions

Durango is nestled in the Animas River Valley surrounded by the San Juan Mountains. The Animas River—El Río de las Animas—runs through downtown and boasts gold medal fly fishing waters, and is popular for whitewater rafting, kayaking and canoeing. Durango is also popular for outdoor activities like hiking, mountain biking, road biking, backpacking, rock climbing, hunting, off-roading, year-round fishing, kayaking and golfing.

Durango is near five major ski areas, including Purgatory at Durango Mountain Resort, located twenty-five minutes north of downtown. Located thirty-five miles west of Durango is Mesa Verde National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site known for its Ancestral Puebloan Cliff Dwellings.

Durango is most known for the Durango & Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, a heritage railway, which travels from Durango to the historic mining town of Silverton, Colorado on steam-powered trains with rolling stock dating back to the 1920s and before.

Durango hosted the first-ever Mountain Bike World Championships in 1990.

Durango is also home to the Snowdown Festival,[7] an event which includes fireworks and a parade. The parade is the centerpiece and usually occurs the last Friday of January or the first Friday of February. Along with the nearby town of Pagosa Springs, Durango also hosts the annual Music in the Mountains summer music festival, which features performances by many of the world’s finest classical musicians.

Main Avenue cuts through Downtown Durango, home to clothing boutiques, restaurants, newsstands, tourist and gift shops, a mall, bars, lounges and other businesses. Many buildings downtown are several stories high and include apartments in the upper levels. Durango’s two oldest hotels, The General Palmer and The Strater Hotel, are both at the South end of Main Avenue, one and two blocks away from the train station, respectively. It is also home to many restaurants. Many serve specialty foods including Mexican, Italian, French, Thai and Japanese and others serve American favorites. Main Avenue is walked by thousands of tourists each week, making it the most popular shopping and relaxing tourist destination in Durango.

Transportation and business

DRGW steam locomotive on the Durango turntable, 1965.

Durango is served by U.S. Highway 160 (the Old Spanish Trail) and U.S. Highway 550. Part of U.S. 550 offers high-speed access (primarily a 4-lane, divided highway) to Albuquerque, New Mexico. North of Durango, 550 is nicknamed the Million Dollar Highway.

Durango has a regional shopping center which is smaller than the Wal-mart and is served by a major regional airport for southwestern Colorado—La Plata Regional Airport (actually located near Ignacio). Durango-La Plata County Airport is serviced by Lynx Aviation (Frontier Airlines), United Express/SkyWest (United Airlines), US Airways Express/Mesa Air (US Airways), and in the summer by American Eagle (American Airlines).

Durango Transit provides several bus routes that serve the community, including Fort Lewis College. Ignacio Road Runner provides bus service to the nearby towns of Ignacio and Bayfield with four trips daily on weekdays and one on Saturdays. Both services share the new Durango Transit Center (opened August 2010) as a hub.

Colleges

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1880 2,000
1890 2,726 36.3%
1900 3,317 21.7%
1910 4,686 41.3%
1920 4,116 −12.2%
1930 5,400 31.2%
1940 5,887 9.0%
1950 7,459 26.7%
1960 10,530 41.2%
1970 10,333 −1.9%
1980 11,649 12.7%
1990 12,430 6.7%
2000 13,922 12.0%
2010 16,887 21.3%
U.S. Decennial Census

As of the census[8] of 2000, there were 13,922 people, 5,492 households, and 2,603 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,052.4 people per square mile (792.8/km²). There were 5,819 housing units at an average density of 857.8 per square mile (331.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 86.84% White, .5% African American, 5.51% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 4.12% from other races, and 2.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.31% of the population.

There were 5,492 households out of which 22.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.2% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 52.6% were non-families. 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.83.

In the city, 16.6% of residents are under the age of 18, 26.1% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.7% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 29 years. For every 100 females there are 104.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 103.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $34,892, and the median income for a family is $50,814. Males have a median income of $31,812 versus $25,022 for females. The per capita income for the city is $19,352. 17.2% of the population and 7.3% of families live below the poverty line. 11.2% of those younger than 18 and 8.9% of those 65 and older live below the poverty line.

Notable residents or natives

Content Source: Wikipedia

Farmington, NM

Geography

Farmington is located at 36°45′6″N 108°11′23″W (36.751549, −108.189768).[5]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Farmington has a total area of 27.0 square miles (70 km2), of which 26.6 square miles (69 km2) is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km2) of it is water.

Demographics

As of the census[6] of 2010, there were 45,877 people, 17,548 housing units, and 11,500 families residing in Farmington. The racial makeup of the city (non-Hispanic) was 52.4% White, 0.8% African American, 21.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22.4% of the population.

There were 16,466 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.1% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.7 and the average family size was 3.19.

Education

The Farmington Municipal School District serves over 10,000 students in grades K-12 in 18 schools.[7] The high schools are Farmington High School, Piedra Vista High School, and Rocinante High School. There are six private schools.[7] San Juan College is a public two-year college with average enrollment of about 10,000.[8]:2–2

Farmington has the feature of College Boulevard. On this 3 miles (4.8 km) road students can get a complete education all the way from preschool‎ to a Doctor of Philosophy degree.[9] The schools that can be attended here include (in order) Casa Montessori Pre-School‎, Mesa Verde Elementary School, Heights Middle School, Piedra Vista High School, and San Juan College. All five located on College Boulevard.

Farmington Public Library moved into a new building in 2003 and holds about 200,000 items in its collection. There is a branch library in Shiprock.

Transportation

Air transportation

Highway

Railroad There is no passenger railroad service anywhere in San Juan County.

Intercity bus There is intercity bus service in Farmington.

Activities

Farmington has been the home of the Connie Mack World Series of Baseball for 43 years, hosting its first CMWS tournament in 1965. Connie Mack regular season play allows players ages 16 to 18 to participate. The Connie Mack World Series consists of 10 teams from various regions around the United States, including a team from Puerto Rico. The Connie Mack World Series is played in August yearly, at Ricketts Park in the City of Farmington. Operated by the City of Farmington year-round, the seating capacity at Ricketts Park baseball field is 5,072. Dimensions of Ricketts field – RF-330, RCF-342, CF-370, LCF-344, and LF-320.[2]

San Juan Plaza in Farmington is also home to an annual strongman competition which takes place the last Saturday of July.

Farmington holds a riverfest once a year. Area rivers are celebrated with a festival of music, fine arts, food, entertainment, a 10K and 5K run & walk, riverside trail walks and river raft rides.

Farmington, New Mexico is home to one of the United States’ Top Municipal Golf Courses, Pinon Hills Golf Course. Owned and operated by the City of Farmington, Pinon Hills has been ranked in the Top Municipal Golf Courses by Golfweek Magazine for several years.

Notable people

Gallup/Grants, NM

Gallup (Navajo: Naʼnízhoozhí) is a city in McKinley County, New Mexico, United States. The population was 21,678 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of McKinley County.[1] and the most populous city between Albuquerque, New Mexico and Flagstaff, Arizona.

Contents

History

Gallup was founded in 1881 as a railhead for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. The city was named after David Gallup, a paymaster for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad.During World War II, the city fought successfully to prevent 800 Japanese American residents from being placed in wartime internment. Gallup is often known was the “Heart of Indian Country” because it is in the middle of many Native American reservations and home to many tribes.[2]

Culture

Route 66 runs through Gallup, and the town’s name is mentioned in the lyrics to the song, “Route 66“. In 2003, the U.S. and New Mexico Departments of Transportation renumbered US Highway 666, the city’s other major highway, as Route 491, since the number “666″ is associated with Satan and Devil worship, and thus it was considered offensive to some people.

The historic El Rancho Hotel & Motel has hosted a numerous array of movie stars including John Wayne, Ronald Reagan, Humphrey Bogart, Spencer Tracy, Katharine Hepburn, Joan Crawford, Kirk Douglas, Doris Day, Gregory Peck and Burt Lancaster. The rugged terrain surrounding Gallup was popular with Hollywood filmmakers during the 1940s and 1950s for the on-location shooting of Westerns. Actors and film crews would stay at the hotel during filming. Films made in Gallup included Billy the Kid (1930), Pursued (1947), The Sea of Grass (1947), Four Faces West (1948), Only the Valiant (1951), Ace in the Hole (1951), Escape from Fort Bravo (1953), A Distant Trumpet (1964) and The Hallelujah Trail (1965).

Gallup is sometimes called the “Indian Capital of the World”, for its location in the heart of Native American lands, and the presence of Navajo, Zuni, Hopi and other tribes. One-third of the city’s population has Native American roots. Gallup’s nickname references the huge impact of the Native American cultures found in and around Gallup. However, the city is criticized in the novel Ceremony, authored by the Native American writer Leslie Marmon Silko, for the city’s slums.

Gallup was the setting as the center of activity in a 2006 Sci Fi Channel mini-series The Lost Room, starring Peter Krause. Akon filmed a music video in Gallup in 2005. In 1994, parts of the movie Natural Born Killers were filmed in the city.

Geography

Gallup is located at 35°31′25″N 108°44′3″W (35.523750, -108.734088).[3] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.4 square miles (35 km2), all land.

Demographics

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 20,209 people, 6,810 households, and 4,869 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,513.7 people per square mile (584.5/km²). There were 7,349 housing units at an average density of 550.5 per square mile (212.5/km²).

There were 6,810 households out of which 41.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 19.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.5% were non-families. 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.39.

In the city the population was spread out with 32.7% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males.

It has close proximity to Native American reservations, and historic lack of economic development in addition to many mine closures in the last century. As a result of these mine closures, Gallup has a large socioeconomic poor population. The median income for a household in the city was $34,868, and the median income for a family was $39,197. Males had a median income of $33,380 versus $24,441 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,789. About 16.6% of families and 20.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 16.8% of those age 65 or over.

Transportation

Airports

Major highways

Train

Climate

Gallup experiences four seasons with large daily temperature ranges. Winter mornings can be very cold, with temperatures in the 0s to low 10s F. However, by mid-afternoon, it is not uncommon for the temperature to be close to 45 F. Summer afternoons have temperatures near 90 F, and can fall into the 40s and 50s by dawn.

[hide]Climate data for Gallup, New Mexico
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 67 (19) 73 (23) 81 (27) 84 (29) 95 (35) 98 (37) 100 (38) 98 (37) 93 (34) 87 (31) 78 (26) 66 (19) 100 (38)
Average high °F (°C) 45 (7) 50 (10) 57 (14) 65 (18) 75 (24) 86 (30) 89 (32) 86 (30) 80 (27) 69 (21) 55 (13) 46 (8) 67 (19)
Average low °F (°C) 11 (−12) 16 (−9) 20 (−7) 24 (−4) 33 (1) 42 (6) 51 (11) 50 (10) 42 (6) 29 (−2) 18 (−8) 11 (−12) 31 (−1)
Record low °F (°C) −20 (−29) −19 (−28) −10 (−23) 6 (−14) 12 (−11) 25 (−4) 31 (−1) 35 (2) 20 (−7) 5 (−15) −26 (−32) −34 (−37) −34 (−37)
Rainfall inches (mm) 0.81 (20.6) 0.65 (16.5) 0.89 (22.6) 0.51 (13) 0.62 (15.7) 0.45 (11.4) 1.56 (39.6) 1.99 (50.5) 1.12 (28.4) 1.19 (30.2) 0.95 (24.1) 0.71 (18) 11.45 (290.8)
Snowfall inches (cm) 6.5 (16.5) 6.0 (15.2) 3.8 (9.7) 2.3 (5.8) 0.5 (1.3) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.7 (1.8) 4.1 (10.4) 6.5 (16.5) 30.4 (77.2)
Source: http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USNM0121http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?nm3422

Sports

Gallup welcomed professional basketball to the city in 2004 when the Gallup Talons of the American Basketball Association (ABA) began playing home games in the Gallup Convention Arena. The team was renamed the Gallup Outlaws for the 2005-2006 season. As of February 12, 2008, the ABA had yet to play a game in Gallup for the 2007-08 season. It was rumored that they may join the National Basketball Development League or NBDL whose closest opponent is the Albuquerque Thunderbirds.

Sights of Gallup

Notable residents

Notable events

Albuquerque area

Albuquerque (play /ˈælbəkɜrk/) is the largest city in the state of New Mexico, United States. It is the county seat of Bernalillo County and is situated in the central part of the state, straddling the Rio Grande. The city population was 545,852 as of the 2010 Census[5] and ranks as the 32nd-largest city in the U.S. As of June 2007, the city was the sixth fastest-growing in America.[6] It has a metropolitan population of 887,077 as of the 2010 Census.[7] Albuquerque is the 57th-largest United States metropolitan area. The Albuquerque MSA population includes the city of Rio Rancho.

Albuquerque is home to the University of New Mexico (UNM), Kirtland Air Force Base, Sandia National Laboratories, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, and Petroglyph National Monument. The Sandia Mountains run along the eastern side of Albuquerque, and the Rio Grande flows through the city, north to south.

Contents

History

Etymology

FranciscoFernandezdelaCueva.jpg

It is generally believed that the growing village that was to become Albuquerque was named by the provincial governor Don Francisco Cuervo y Valdes in honor of Don Francisco Fernández de la Cueva y Enríquez de Cabrera, viceroy of New Spain from 1653 to 1660. One of de la Cueva’s aristocratic titles was Duke of Alburquerque, referring to the Spanish town of Alburquerque.

The Alburquerque family name dates from pre-12th century Iberia (Spain and Portugal) and is habitational in nature (de Alburquerque = from Alburquerque). The Spanish village of Alburquerque is within the Badajoz province of Extremadura region, and located just fifteen miles (24 km) from the Portuguese border. Cork trees dominate the landscape and Alburquerque is a center of the Spanish cork industry.[8] Over the years, this region has been alternately under both Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name of the New Mexico city of Albuquerque follows the Portuguese spelling with only one ‘r’ rather than the Spanish one. Historically, the land around Alburquerque was invaded and settled by the Moors (711 AD) and the Romans (218 BC) before them. Thus, the word Alburquerque may be rooted in the Arabic (Moorish) ‘Abu al-Qurq’, which means “father of the cork oak”, or “land of the cork oak” (the land as father—fatherland). Alternatively, it may be Latin (Roman) in origin and from ‘alba quercus’ or “white oak” (the wood of the cork oak is white after the bark has been removed). The seal of the Spanish village of Alburquerque is a white oak tree, framed by a shield, topped by a crown.[9]

Western folklore offers a different explanation, tracing the name Alburquerque to the Arabic ‘Al-Barquq’, meaning “the plum”, and the derivative Galician (Galicia, northwest Spanish region) word ‘albaricoque’, the “apricot”. The apricot was brought to New Mexico by Spanish settlers, possibly as early as 1743. As the story goes, the settlement of La Ciudad de Albaricoque was established near an apricot tree. As frontiersmen were unable to correctly pronounce the Spanish (Galician) word, they pronounced it as “Albuquerque.”[10]

Early settlers

Old Town Albuquerque Plaza

Depiction of Central Avenue (Downtown Albuquerque), circa early 20th century

Downtown Albuquerque 1880
Old Albuquerque High, built 1914
Victorian and Gothic Styles were used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Albuquerque was founded in 1706 as the Spanish colonial outpost of Ranchos de Alburquerque, 18 families had resided in the area. Present-day Albuquerque retains much of its historical Spanish cultural heritage.

Albuquerque was a farming community and strategically located military outpost along the Camino Real. The town was also the sheep-herding center of the West.[11] Spain established a presidio (military garrison) in Albuquerque in 1706. After 1821, Mexico also had a military garrison there. The town of Alburquerque was built in the traditional Spanish village pattern: a central plaza surrounded by government buildings, homes, and a church. This central plaza area has been preserved and is open to the public as a museum, cultural area, and center of commerce. It is referred to as “Old Town Albuquerque” or simply “Old Town.” “Old Town” was sometimes referred to as “La Placita” (“little plaza” in Spanish).

After the American occupation of New Mexico, Albuquerque had a federal garrison and quartermaster depot, the Post of Albuquerque, from 1846 to 1867. During the Civil War Albuquerque was occupied in February 1862 by Confederate troops under General Henry Hopkins Sibley, who soon afterward advanced with his main body into northern New Mexico. During his retreat from Union troops into Texas he made a stand on April 8, 1862, at Albuquerque and fought the Battle of Albuquerque against a detachment of Union soldiers commanded by Colonel Edward R. S. Canby. This daylong engagement at long range led to few casualties.

When the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad arrived in 1880, it bypassed the Plaza, locating the passenger depot and railyards about 2 miles (3 km) east in what quickly became known as New Albuquerque or New Town. Many Anglo merchants, mountain men, and settlers slowly filtered into Albuquerque creating a major mercantile commercial center which is now Downtown Albuquerque. Due to a rising rate of violent crime, gunman Milt Yarberry was appointed the town’s first marshal that year. New Albuquerque was incorporated as a town in 1885, with Henry N. Jaffa its first mayor, and it was incorporated as a city in 1891.[12]:232–233 Old Town remained a separate community until the 1920s when it was absorbed by the city of Albuquerque. Old Albuquerque High School, the city’s first public high school, was established in 1879.

Early 20th century

New Albuquerque quickly became a tidy southwestern town. By 1900, it boasted a population of 8,000 inhabitants and all the modern amenities, including an electric street railway connecting Old Town, New Town, and the recently established University of New Mexico campus on the East Mesa. In 1902, the famous Alvarado Hotel was built adjacent to the new passenger depot, and it remained a symbol of the city until it was razed in 1970 to make room for a parking lot. In 2002, the Alvarado Transportation Center was built on the site in a manner resembling the old landmark. The large metro station functions as the downtown headquarters for the city’s transit department. It also serves as an intermodal hub for local buses, Greyhound buses, Amtrak passenger trains, and the Rail Runner commuter rail line.

New Mexico’s dry climate brought many tuberculosis patients to the city in search of a cure during the early 20th century, and several sanitaria sprang up on the West Mesa to serve them. Presbyterian Hospital and St. Joseph Hospital, two of the largest hospitals in the Southwest, had their beginnings during this period. Influential New Deal–era governor Clyde Tingley and famed Southwestern architect John Gaw Meem were among those brought to New Mexico by tuberculosis.

Decades of growth

The first travelers on Route 66 appeared in Albuquerque in 1926, and before long, dozens of motels, restaurants, and gift shops had sprung up along the roadside to serve them. Route 66 originally ran through the city on a north-south alignment along Fourth Street, but in 1937 it was realigned along Central Avenue, a more direct east-west route. The intersection of Fourth and Central downtown was the principal crossroads of the city for decades. The majority of the surviving structures from the Route 66 era are on Central, though there are also some on Fourth. Signs between Bernalillo and Los Lunas along the old route now have brown, historical highway markers denoting it as Pre-1937 Route 66.

The establishment of Kirtland Air Force Base in 1939, Sandia Base in the early 1940s, and Sandia National Laboratories in 1949, would make Albuquerque a key player of the Atomic Age. Meanwhile, the city continued to expand outward onto the West Mesa, reaching a population of 201,189 by 1960. In 1990, it was 384,736 and in 2007 it was 518,271. In June 2007, Albuquerque was listed as the sixth fastest-growing city in America by CNN and the U.S. Census Bureau.[6] In 1990, the Census Bureau reported Albuquerque’s population as 34.5% Hispanic and 58.3% non-Hispanic white.[13]

Albuquerque’s downtown entered the same phase and development (decline, “urban renewal” with continued decline, and gentrification) as nearly every city across the United States. As Albuquerque spread outward, the downtown area fell into a decline. Many historic buildings were razed in the 1960s and 1970s to make way for new plazas, high-rises, and parking lots as part of the city’s urban renewal phase. As of 2010, only recently has downtown come to regain much of its urban character, mainly through the construction of many new loft apartment buildings and the renovation of historic structures such as the KiMo Theater, in the gentrification phase.

  • Albuquerque at dusk, 2007

  • Colored lit buildings of Downtown, 2007

  • Aerial photo of Albuquerque as seen from I-40 and I-25 interchange. Rio Grande shown in background, 2007

  • Albuquerque Studios, 2009

New millennium

During the 21st century, the Albuquerque population has continued to grow rapidly. The population of the city proper is estimated at 528,497 in 2009, up from 448,607 in the 2000 census. The Albuquerque metropolitan area has 907,775 residents, and it is projected to increase to 2 million people by 2030, according to projections from the University of New Mexico’s Bureau of Business and Economic Research.[14] During 2005 and 2006, the city celebrated its tricentennial with a diverse program of cultural events.

Urban trends and issues

Alvarado Station provides convenient access to other parts of the city via the city bus system, ABQ RIDE. And the city plans to provide better public transportation opportunities to ease the city’s growing traffic woes.

The passage of the Planned Growth Strategy in 2002–2004 was the community’s strongest effort to create a framework for a more balanced and sustainable approach to urban growth.[15]

A critical finding of the study is that many of the ‘disconnects’ between the public’s preferences and what actually is taking place are caused by weak or non-existent implementation tools – rather than by inadequate policies, as contained in the City/County Comprehensive Plan and other already adopted legislation.

Urban sprawl is limited on three sides—by the Pueblo of Sandia to the north, the Pueblo of Isleta and Kirtland Air Force Base to the south, and the Sandia Mountains to the east. Suburban growth continues at a strong pace to the west, beyond Petroglyph National Monument, once thought to be a natural boundary to sprawl development.[16]

Because of less-costly land and lower taxes, much of the growth in the metropolitan area is taking place outside of the city of Albuquerque itself. In Rio Rancho to the northwest, the communities east of the mountains, and the incorporated parts of Valencia County, population growth rates approach twice that of Albuquerque. The primary cities in Valencia County are Los Lunas and Belen, both of which are home to growing industrial complexes and new residential subdivisions. The mountain towns of Tijeras, Edgewood, and Moriarty, while close enough to Albuquerque to be considered suburbs, have experienced much less growth compared to Rio Rancho, Bernalillo, Los Lunas, and Belen. Limited water supply and rugged terrain are the main limiting factors for development in these towns. The Mid Region Council of Governments (MRCOG), which includes constituents from throughout the Albuquerque area, was formed to ensure that these governments along the middle Rio Grande would be able to meet the needs of their rapidly rising populations. MRCOG’s cornerstone project is the New Mexico Rail Runner Express.

Geography

Sandia Peak Ski Area on the Sandia Mountains.

According to the United States Census Bureau, Albuquerque has a total area of 181.3 square miles (470 km2). 180.6 square miles (468 km2) of it is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2) of it (0.35%) is water.

Albuquerque lies within the northern, upper edges of the Chihuahuan Desert ecoregion, based on long-term patterns of climate, associations of plants and wildlife, and landforms, including drainage patterns. Located in central New Mexico, the city also has noticeable influences from the adjacent Colorado Plateau Semi-Desert, Arizona-New Mexico Mountains, and Southwest Plateaus and Plains Steppe ecoregions, depending on where one is located. Its main geographic connection lies with southern New Mexico, while culturally, Albuquerque is a crossroads of most of New Mexico.

Albuquerque has one of the highest elevations of any major city in the United States, though the effects of this are greatly tempered by its southwesterly continental position. The elevation of the city ranges from 4,900 feet (1,490 m) above sea level near the Rio Grande (in the Valley) to over 6,700 feet (1,950 m) in the foothill areas of Sandia Heights and Glenwood Hills. At the airport, the elevation is 5,352 feet (1,631 m) above sea level.

The Rio Grande is classified, like the Nile, as an “exotic” river because it flows through a desert. The New Mexico portion of the Rio Grande lies within the Rio Grande Rift Valley, bordered by a system of faults, including those that lifted up the adjacent Sandia and Manzano Mountains, while lowering the area where the life-sustaining Rio Grande now flows.

Climate

Downtown Albuquerque after a snowstorm

Albuquerque has a hot arid climate (BSk, depending on the particular scheme of the Köppen climate classification system one uses), typical of the Chihuahuan Desert in which it lies. The average annual precipitation is less than half of evaporation, and no month averages below freezing.

Albuquerque’s climate is usually sunny and dry, with low relative humidity, with an average of 3,420 sunshine hours per year.[17][18] Brilliant sunshine defines the region, averaging 278  days a year; periods of variably mid and high-level cloudiness temper the sun at other times. Extended cloudiness is rare. The city has four distinct seasons, but the heat and cold are mild compared to the extremes that occur more commonly in other parts of the country.

Winters are rather brief; daytime highs in December and January average in the mid 40s to lower 50s Fahrenheit, while the overnight lows drop into the 20s and 30s.

Spring time starts off windy and warm, sometimes unsettled with some rain, though spring is usually the driest part of the year in Albuquerque. March and April tend to see many days with the wind blowing at 20 to 30 mph (32 to 48 km/h), and afternoon gusts can produce periods of blowing sand and dust. In May, the winds tend to subside, as temperatures start to feel like summer.

Summer daytime highs are usually in the 90s to lower 100s, while dropping into the 60s to 70s overnight. The heat is quite tolerable because of low humidity, except during the late summer during increased humidity from surges in the monsoonal pattern; at that time, daytime highs drop slightly but the extra moisture in the air can cause nighttime temperatures to increase.

Fall sees warm days and cool nights with less rain, though the weather can be more unsettled closer to winter.

The city was one of several in the region experiencing a severe winter storm on December 28–30, 2006, with locations in Albuquerque receiving between 10.5 and 26 inches (27 and 66 cm) of snow.[19] The mountains and highlands beyond the city create a rain shadow effect, due to the drying of descending air movements; the city usually receives very little rain or snow, averaging 8–9 inches (216 mm) of precipitation per year. Valley and west mesa areas, farther from the mountains are drier, averaging 6–8 inches of annual precipitation; the Sandia foothills tend to lift any available moisture, enhancing precipitation to about 10–17 inches annually. Most precipitation occurs during the summer monsoon season (also called a chubasco in Mexico), typically starting in early July and ending in mid-September.

[show]Climate data for Albuquerque (Albuquerque International Sunport), 1981–2010 averages

Geology

The Sandia Mountains are the predominant geographic feature visible in Albuquerque. “Sandía” is Spanish for “watermelon“, and is popularly believed to be a reference to the brilliant coloration of the mountains at sunset: bright pink (melon meat) and green (melon rind). The pink is due to large exposures of granodiorite cliffs, and the green is due to large swaths of conifer forests. However, Robert Julyan notes in The Place Names of New Mexico, “the most likely explanation is the one believed by the Sandia Pueblo Indians: the Spaniards, when they encountered the Pueblo in 1540, called it Sandia, because they thought the squash growing there were watermelons, and the name Sandia soon was transferred to the mountains east of the pueblo.”[21] He also notes that the Sandia Pueblo Indians call the mountain Bien Mur, “big mountain.”[21]

Satellite image of Albuquerque taken by NASA.

The Sandia foothills, on the west side of the mountains, have soils derived from that same rock material with varying sizes of decomposed granite, mixed with areas of clay and caliche (a calcareous clay common in the arid southwestern USA), along with some exposed granite bedrock.

Below the foothills, the area usually called the “Northeast Heights” consists of a mix of clay and caliche soils, overlain by a layer of decomposed granite, resulting from long-term outwash of that material from the adjacent mountains. This bajada is quite noticeable when driving into Albuquerque from the north or south, due to its fairly uniform slope from the mountains’ edge downhill to the valley. Sand hills are scattered along the I-25 corridor and directly above the Rio Grande Valley, forming the lower end of the Heights.

The Rio Grande Valley, due to long-term shifting of the actual river channel, contains layers and areas of soils varying between caliche, clay, loam, and even some sand. It is the only part of Albuquerque where the water table often lies close to the surface, sometimes less than 10 feet (3.0 m).

The last significant area of Albuquerque geologically is the West Mesa: this is the elevated land west of the Rio Grande, including “West Bluff”, the sandy terrace immediately west and above the river, and the rather sharply defined volcanic escarpment above and west of most of the developed city. The west mesa commonly has soils often referred to as “blow sand”, along with occasional clay and caliche and even basalt, nearing the escarpment.

Hydrology

Albuquerque’s drinking water presently comes from a delicate aquifer that was once described as an “underground Lake Superior“. The Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) has developed a water resources management strategy, which pursues conservation and the direct extraction of water from the Rio Grande for the development of a stable underground aquifer in the future.[22][23]

Tingley Beach in Old Town, Albuquerque, a pond in a former watercourse by the Rio Grande.

The aquifer of the Rio Puerco is too saline to be cost-effectively used for drinking purposes.

Much of the rainwater that Albuquerque receives does not recharge its aquifer. It is diverted through a network of paved channels and arroyos, and emptied into the Rio Grande.

Of the 62,780 acre feet (77,440,000 m3) per year of the water in the upper Colorado River basin entitled to municipalities in New Mexico by the Upper Colorado River Basin Compact, Albuquerque owns 48,200. The water is delivered to the Rio Grande by the San JuanChama Project. The project’s construction was initiated by legislation enacted by President John F. Kennedy in 1962, and completed in 1971. This diversion project transports water under the continental divide from Navajo Lake to Lake Heron on the Rio Chama, a tributary of the Rio Grande. Presently, this water is resold to downstream owners in Texas. These arrangements ended in 2008 with the completion of the ABCWUA’s Drinking Water Supply Project.[24][dated info]

This project will, using a system of adjustable height dams, skim water from the Rio Grande into sluices which will lead to water treatment facilities for direct conversion to potable water. Some water will be allowed to flow through central Albuquerque, mostly to protect the endangered Rio Grande Silvery Minnow. Treated effluent water will be recycled into the Rio Grande to the South of the city. The ABCWUA expects river water to comprise up to seventy percent of its water budget in 2060. Groundwater will still be used. One of the policies of the ABCWUA’s strategy is the acquisition of additional river water.[23][25] :Policy G, 14

Cityscape

A panoramic view of the city of Albuquerque.

Tallest buildings

Rank Building Height Floors Built
1 Bank of Albuquerque Tower 351 feet (107 m) 22 1990
2 Hyatt Regency Albuquerque 256 feet (78 m) 21 1990
3 Compass Bank Tower 240 feet (73 m) 18 1966
4 Bank of the West Tower, West 235 feet (72 m) 15 1986
5 Bank of the West Tower, East 213 feet (65 m) 17 1963
6 Gold Building 203 feet (62 m) 14 1959
7 Dennis Chavez Federal Building 197 feet (60 m) 13 1965
8 PNM Resources Tower 184 feet (56 m) 12 1974
9 Simms Building 180 feet (55 m) 13 1954
10 Pete V. Domenici U.S. Courthouse 176 feet (54 m) 7 1997

Architecture

John Gaw Meem, credited with developing and popularizing the Pueblo Revival style, was based in Santa Fe but received an important Albuquerque commission in 1933 as the architect of the University of New Mexico. He retained this commission for the next quarter-century and developed the University’s distinctive Southwest style.[12] :317

Due to the nature of the soil in the Rio Grande Valley, the skyline is lower than might be expected in a city of comparable size elsewhere.

Many buildings from the 19th century remain in downtown today.

Albuquerque boasts a unique nighttime cityscape. Many building exteriors are illuminated in vibrant colors such as green and blue. The Wells Fargo Building is illuminated green. The DoubleTree Hotel and the Compass Bank building are illuminated blue. The rotunda of the county courthouse is illuminated yellow, while the tops of the Bank of Albuquerque and the Bank of the West are illuminated reddish-yellow.

Albuquerque has expanded greatly in area since the mid 1940s. During those years of expansion, the planning of the newer areas has considered that people drive rather than walk. The pre-1940s parts of Albuquerque are quite different in style and scale from the post 1940s areas. These older areas include the North Valley, the South Valley, various neighborhoods near downtown, and Corrales. The newer areas generally feature four to six lane roads in a 1 mile (1.61 km) grid. Each 1 square mile (2.59 km²) is divided into four 160-acre (0.65 km2) neighborhoods by smaller roads set 0.5 miles (0.8 km) between major roads. When driving along major roads in the newer sections of Albuquerque, one sees strip malls, signs, and cinderblock walls. The upside of this planning style is that neighborhoods are shielded from the worst of the noise and lights on the major roads. The downside is that it is virtually impossible to go anywhere from home without driving.

Quadrants

Albuquerque is geographically divided into four quadrants which are officially part of the mailing address. They are NE (northeast), NW (northwest), SE (southeast), and SW (southwest). The north-south dividing line is Central Avenue (the path that Route 66 took through the city) and the east-west dividing line is the BNSF Railway tracks.

Northeast Quadrant

This quadrant has been experiencing a housing expansion since the late 1950s. It abuts the base of the Sandia Mountains and contains portions of the foothills neighborhoods, which are significantly higher, in elevation and price range, than the rest of the city. Running from Central Avenue and the railroad tracks to the Sandia Peak Aerial Tram, this is the largest quadrant both geographically and by population. The University of New Mexico, the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, the Uptown area which includes two shopping malls (Coronado Center and ABQ Uptown), Journal Center, and Balloon Fiesta Park are all located in this quadrant.

Some of the most affluent neighborhoods in the city are located here, including Tanoan, High Desert, Sandia Heights, and North Albuquerque Acres. (Parts of Sandia Heights and North Albuquerque Acres are outside the city limits proper.) A few houses in the farthest reach of this quadrant lie in the Cibola National Forest, just over the line into Sandoval County.

The KiMo Theater in Downtown.

Northwest Quadrant

This quadrant contains historic Old Town Albuquerque, which dates back to the 18th century, as well as the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. The area has a mixture of commercial districts and low- to middle-income neighborhoods. Northwest Albuquerque includes the largest section of downtown, Rio Grande Nature Center State Park and the Bosque (“woodlands”), Petroglyph National Monument, Double Eagle II Airport, Martineztown, the Paradise Hills neighborhood, and Cottonwood Mall.

Additionally, the “North Valley” area, which has some expensive homes and small ranches along the Rio Grande, is located here. The city of Albuquerque engulfs the village of Los Ranchos de Albuquerque and borders Corrales in the North Valley. The rapidly developing area on the west side of the river is known as the “West Mesa” or “Westside” and consists primarily of traditional residential subdivisions. The city proper is bordered on the north by the city of Rio Rancho.

Lobo Theater in Nob Hill

Southeast Quadrant

Kirtland Air Force Base, Sandia National Laboratories, Sandia Science & Technology Park, Albuquerque International Sunport, Eclipse Aerospace, Central New Mexico Community College, Albuquerque Veloport, University Stadium, Isotopes Park, The Pit, Mesa del Sol, The Pavilion, Albuquerque Studios, Hard Rock Casino, National Museum of Nuclear Science & History, New Mexico Veterans’ Memorial, and Talin Market are all located in the Southeast (SE) quadrant.

The upscale neighborhood of Four Hills and the Four Hills Country Club are located in the foothills of Southeast Albuquerque. Other neighborhoods that can be found in this quadrant include Nob Hill, Ridgecrest, Willow Wood, and Volterra.

Southwest Quadrant

Traditionally consisting of agricultural and rural areas, the Southwest quadrant is often referred to as the “South Valley.” Although the city limits of Albuquerque do not include all of the area, the South Valley is considered to extend all the way to the Isleta Indian Reservation. This includes the old communities of Atrisco, Los Padillas, Kinney, Westgate, Westside, Mountainview, and Pajarito. The south end of downtown Albuquerque, the Bosque (“woodlands”), the Barelas neighborhood, the National Hispanic Cultural Center, and the Albuquerque Biological Park are also located here.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1890 3,785
1900 6,238 64.8%
1910 11,020 76.7%
1920 15,157 37.5%
1930 26,570 75.3%
1940 35,449 33.4%
1950 96,815 173.1%
1960 201,189 107.8%
1970 244,501 21.5%
1980 332,920 36.2%
1990 384,736 15.6%
2000 448,607 16.6%
2010 545,852 21.7%
Source:[26]

2010 Census

As of the census[27] of 2010, there were 545,852 people, 239,166 households, and 224,330 families residing in the city. The population density was 3010.7/mi² (1162.6/km²). There were 239,166 housing units at an average density of 1,556.7 per square mile (538.2/km²).

The racial makeup of the city was:[28]

There were 239,116 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.6% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.5% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.02.

The age distribution was 24.5% under 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.0% who were 65 or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $38,272, and the median income for a family was $46,979. Males had a median income of $34,208 versus $26,397 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,884. About 10.0% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.4% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over.

Economy

Largest Employers in Albuquerque
1 Kirtland Air Force Base
2 University of New Mexico
3 Albuquerque Public Schools
4 Sandia National Laboratories
5 Presbyterian Health System[30]
6 State of New Mexico (Government)
7 Lovelace Health System[31]
8 Intel Corporation
9 PNM Resources
10 Bank of Albuquerque (BOK Financial)[32]

Albuquerque lies at the center of the New Mexico Technology Corridor, a concentration of high-tech private companies and government institutions along the Rio Grande. Larger institutions whose employees contribute to the population are numerous and include Sandia National Laboratories, Kirtland Air Force Base, and the attendant contracting companies which bring highly educated workers to a somewhat isolated region. Intel operates a large semiconductor factory or “fab” in suburban Rio Rancho, in neighboring Sandoval County, with its attendant large capital investment. Northrop Grumman is located along I-25 in northeast Albuquerque, and TempurPedic is located on the West Mesa next to I-40.

The solar energy and architectural-design innovator Steve Baer located his company, Zomeworks, to the region in the late 1960s; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory cooperate here in an enterprise that began with the Manhattan Project. In January 2007, Tempur-Pedic opened an 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m2) mattress factory in northwest Albuquerque. SCHOTT Solar, Inc., announced in January 2008 they will open a 200,000-square-foot (19,000 m2) facility manufacturing receivers for concentrated solar thermal power plants (CSP) and 64MW of photovoltaic (PV) modules.

Forbes Magazine rated Albuquerque the best city in America for business and careers in 2006[33] and the 13th best (out of 200 metro areas) in 2008.[34]

Arts and culture

Albuquerque Botanical Gardens

Albuquerque is home to 300 visual arts, music, dance, literary, film, ethnic, and craft organizations, museums, festivals and associations.

Points of interest

Albuquerque contains a variety of museums, galleries, shops and other points of interest. Some of these include the Albuquerque Biological Park, Albuquerque Museum of Art and History, Museum of Natural History and Science, and Old Town Albuquerque. The majority of locally owned boutiques and fine dining establishments are scattered throughout Downtown, Old Town, and Uptown. Old Town features ghost tours performed by the Southwest Ghosthunters Association. Albuquerque also has a variety of live music/performance venues including Hard Rock Pavilion, Tingley Coliseum, Sunshine Theater and the KiMo Theater.

The Sandia and Manzano Mountains to the east offer trails, open spaces, and rock climbing. Climbs from one to ten pitches can be found at all ability levels. The Sandia Peak Tramway, located adjacent to Albuquerque is the world’s second-longest passenger aerial tramway. It also has the world’s third-longest single span. It stretches from the Northeast edge of the city to the crestline of the Sandia Mountains. Elevation at the top of the tramway is roughly 10,300 ft (3,100 m). above sea level.

Sports

Isotopes Baseball Park

The Albuquerque Isotopes are a minor league affiliate of the Los Angeles Dodgers, having derived their name from The Simpsons episode “Hungry Hungry Homer“, which involves the Springfield Isotopes baseball team considering relocating to Albuquerque.[35][36] Prior to 2002, the Albuquerque Dukes served as the city’s minor league team, having played at the Albuquerque Sports Stadium. The stadium was torn down to make room for the current Isotopes Park.

Club Sport League Venue Capacity
Albuquerque Isotopes Baseball AAA PCL Isotopes Park 12,500
New Mexico Mustangs Ice hockey NAHL Santa Ana Star Center 7,500
University of New Mexico Lobos NCAA Division I FBS Football Mountain West Conference University Stadium 42,000
University of New Mexico Lobos (men and women) NCAA Division I Basketball Mountain West Conference The Pit 17,126

Parks and recreation

See also the External links section

Roosevelt Park

Albuquerque has numerous parks, bike paths, and hiking areas scattered throughout the metro area. Most of the city’s best biking and hiking areas are concentrated in and around the Sandia and Manzano foothills.

The city was ranked No. 1 as the fittest city in the United States, according to a March 2007 issue of Men’s Fitness magazine. The critera used in the study included the availability of gyms and bike paths, commute times, and federal health statistics on obesity-related injuries and illnesses.

Government

Metropolitan Courthouse Complex and City Government Annex

Albuquerque City Council
Richard J. Berry Mayor
Kenneth Sánchez 1st District
Debbra O’Malley 2nd District
Isaac Benton 3rd District
Bradley Winter 4th District
Daniel Lewis 5th District
Rey Garduño 6th District
Michael D. Cook 7th District
Trudy Jones 8th District
Don Harris 9th District

Albuquerque is a charter city.[37][38] City government is divided into an executive branch, headed by a Mayor[37]:V and a nine-member Council that holds the legislative authority.[37]:IV The form of city government is therefore mayor-council government. The mayor is Richard J. Berry, a former state legislator, who was elected in 2009.

The Mayor holds a full-time paid elected position with a four-year term.[39] The Council members hold part-time paid positions and are elected from the nine Council districts for four-year terms, with four or five Councilors elected every two years.[40] Elections for Mayor and Councilor are nonpartisan.[37]:IV.4[38] Each year in December one of the Council members is elected by the members of the Council to be the Council President, and one is elected to be the Vice-President.[39] On December 1, 2008, Isaac Benton was elected President of the Council for the next year and Sally Mayer was elected Vice-President.[41]

The Council is the legislative authority of the city, and has the power to adopt all ordinances, resolutions, or other legislation.[40] The Council meets two times a month, with meetings held in the Vincent E. Griego Council Chambers in the basement level of Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Government Center.[42] Ordinances and resolutions passed by the Council are presented to the Mayor for his approval. If the Mayor vetoes an item, the Council can override the veto with a vote of two-thirds of the membership of the Council.[37]:XI.3

Each year, the Mayor submits a city budget proposal for the year to the Council by April 1, and the Council acts on the proposal within the next 60 days.[37]:VII

Education

Hokona Hall at University of New Mexico

Albuquerque is home to the University of New Mexico, the largest public flagship university in the state. UNM includes a School of Medicine which was ranked in the top 50 primary care-oriented medical schools in the country.[43] Albuquerque is also home to the National American University, Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute, Trinity Southwest University, and the University of St. Francis College of Nursing and Allied Health Department of Physician Assistant Studies. The Central New Mexico Community College serves most of the area, as do several technical schools including ITT Technical Institute and the University of Phoenix. Furthermore, The Art Center Design College offers bachelor’s degrees in Graphic and Interior Design, animation, illustration, photography as well as several other disciplines. Albuquerque is also home to the Ayurvedic Institute, one of the first Ayurveda colleges specializing in Ayurvedic medicine outside of India. Albuquerque Public Schools, one of the largest school districts in the nation, provides educational services to over 87,000 children across the city.

Media

The city is served by one major newspaper, the Albuquerque Journal, and several smaller daily and weekly papers, including the alternative Weekly Alibi. Albuquerque is also home to numerous radio and television stations that serve the metropolitan and outlying rural areas.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Main highways

Some of the main highways in the city include:

The interchange between I-40 and I-25 is known as the “Big I“.[44]:248 Originally built in 1966, it was rebuilt in 2002.

Bridges

There are six road bridges that cross the Rio Grande and serve the municipality on at least one end if not both. The eastern approaches of the northernmost three all pass through adjacent unincorporated areas, the Village of Los Ranchos de Albuquerque, or the North Valley. In downstream order they are:

  • Alameda Bridge
  • Paseo del Norte Bridge
  • Montano Bridge
  • I-40 Bridge
  • Old Town Bridge
  • Barelas Bridge

Two more bridges serve urbanized areas contiguous to the city’s perforated southern boundary.

Rail

Rail Runner Express Downtown Albuquerque station train platform.

The state owns most of the city’s rail infrastructure which is used by a commuter rail system, long distance passenger trains, and the freight trains of the BNSF Railway.

Freight Service

BNSF Railway operates a small yard operation out of Abajo yard, located just south of the Cesar E. Chavez Ave. overpass and the New Mexico Rail Runner Express yards. Most freight traffic through the Central New Mexico region is processed via a much larger hub in nearby Belen, New Mexico.

Intercity rail

Amtrak‘s Southwest Chief, which travels between Chicago and Los Angeles, serves the Albuquerque area daily with one stop in each direction at the Alvarado Transportation Center in downtown.

Commuter rail

The New Mexico Rail Runner Express, a commuter rail line, began service between Sandoval County and Albuquerque in July 2006 using an existing BNSF right-of-way which was purchased by New Mexico in 2005. Service expanded to Valencia County in December 2006 and to Santa Fe on December 17, 2008. Rail Runner now connects Santa Fe, Sandoval, Bernalillo, and Valencia Counties with thirteen station stops, including three stops within Albuquerque.[45] The trains connect Albuquerque to downtown Santa Fe with eight roundtrips per weekday. The section of the line running south to Belen is served less frequently.[46]

New intermodal transportation hub in downtown Albuquerque.

Local mass transit

ABQ RIDE is the local transit agency in the city. ABQ RIDE operates a variety of bus routes, including the Rapid Ride express bus service.

In 2006 the City of Albuquerque under the mayorship of Martin Chavez had planned and attempted to “fast track” the development of a “Modern Streetcar” project. Funding for the US$270 million system was not resolved as many citizens vocally opposed the project. The city and its transit department maintain a policy commitment to the streetcar project.[47] The project would run mostly in the southeast quadrant on Central Avenue and Yale Boulevard.

As of 2011, the city is working on a study to develop a BRT (bus rapid transit) system through the Central Ave. corridor. This corridor currently carries 44% of all bus riders in the ABQ Ride system, making it a natural starting point for enhanced service.[48]

Albuquerque was one of two cities in New Mexico to have had electric street railways. Albuquerque’s horse-drawn streetcar lines were electrified during the first few years of the 20th century. The Albuquerque Traction Company assumed operation of the system in 1905. The system grew to its maximum length of 6 miles (9.7 km) during the next ten years by connecting destinations such as Old Town to the west and the University of New Mexico to the east with the town’s urban center near the former Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway depot. The Albuquerque Traction Company failed financially in 1915 and the vaguely named City Electric Company was formed. Despite traffic booms during the first world war, and unaided by lawsuits attempting to force the streetcar company to pay for paving, that system also failed later in 1927, leaving the streetcar‘s “motorettes” unemployed.[49]:177–181

Bicycle transit

Albuquerque has a well-developed bicycle network.[50] In and around the City there are trails, bike routes, and paths that provide the residents and visitors with alternatives to motorized travel. The city was recently reviewed as having a major up and coming bike scene in North America.[51] The City of Albuquerque also recently opened its first Bicycle Boulevard on Silver Avenue.[52] There are plans for more investment in bikes and bike transit by the city in the coming years.

Walkability

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Albuquerque 28th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.[53]

Airports

Albuquerque is served by two airports, the larger of which is Albuquerque International Sunport. It is located 3 miles (5 km) southeast of the central business district of Albuquerque. The Albuquerque International Sunport served over 6,000,000 passengers in 2008.[54] Double Eagle II Airport is the other airport. It is primarily used as an air ambulance, corporate flight, military flight, training flight, charter flight, and private flight facility.[55]

Utilities

Energy

PNM Resources, New Mexico’s largest electricity provider, is based in Albuquerque. They serve about 487,000 electricity customers statewide.

New Mexico Gas Company provides natural gas services to more than 500,000 customers in the state, including the Albuquerque metro area.

Sanitation

The Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority is responsible for the delivery of drinking water and the treatment of wastewater.

For more details on this topic, see Albuquerque#Hydrology.

Healthcare

Albuquerque is the medical hub of New Mexico, hosting numerous state-of-the-art medical centers. Some of the city’s top hospitals include the VA Medical Center, Presbyterian Hospital, Heart Hospital of New Mexico, and Lovelace Women’s Hospital. University of New Mexico Hospital is the only level I trauma center in the state.

Notable people

Artesia/Roswell, NM

Geography

Artesia is located at 32°50′34″N 104°24′44″W (32.842744, -104.412315),[2] at an elevation of 3,380 feet (1,030 m).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.0 square miles (20.7 km2), of which 8.0 square miles (20.7 km2) is land and 0.13% is water.

The Pecos River is about three miles east of Artesia. Located in Artesia This section includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (January 2011)

The principal economic activities which support Artesia are the oil and gas industry, agriculture and dairy. Prominent, local oil and gas businesses include Yates Petroleum, Mack Energy Corporation, and Marbob Energy Corp. In the Fall of 2010, Concho Resources acquired most of Marbob Energy Corp’s assets for nearly $1.6 billion. Holly Corporation also operates the Navajo Refinery, the largest refinery in New Mexico, at the corner of 1st and Main Street.

Artesia is home to the former Abo Elementary School, identified by One Nation Underground (ISBN 0-8147-7522-5) as the first and most likely only public school which is entirely underground and equipped to function as a fallout shelter. The school, completed in 1962, had a concrete slab roof which served as the school’s playground. It contained a large storage facility with room for supplies for 2000 people in the event of nuclear warfare. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999 and is located at 1802 W Centre Ave.

The city has one of the few residential training sites of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), mostly for United States Border Patrol Agents and U.S. Air Marshals . The center is located on the former campus of the College of Artesia, which operated from 1966 to 1971.

Artesia has a high-voltage direct current back-to-back station which connects the eastern and western electric grids in Eddy County. This tie, built by General Electric in 1983, can transfer a maximum power of 200 megawatts. The used voltage is 82 kV.

The birthplaces of professional golfer Steve Jones and actress Alexa Havins are located in the city.

The Artesia Restaurant and Hotel is prominently featured as a location in the film The Man Who Fell to Earth (film) starring David Bowie.

Edgar Mitchell, Apollo 14 astronaut, identifies Artesia as his “hometown.”

Current American football player and University of Oklahoma quarterback Landry Jones attended Artesia High School, where he led the football team to two consecutive Class 4A state championships

Demographics

As of the census[3] of 2000, there were 10,692 people, 4,080 households, and 2,896 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,341.3 people per square mile (518.0/km²). There were 4,593 housing units at an average density of 576.2 per square mile (222.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 72.25% White, 1.54% Native American, 1.44% African American, 0.20% Asian, 0.15% Pacific Islander, 21.56% from other races, and 2.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 44.98% of the population.

There were 4,080 households out of which 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.0% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.15.

In the city the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,529, and the median income for a family was $34,598. Males had a median income of $30,085 versus $19,566 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,911. About 15.7% of families and 20.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.8% of those under age 18 and 20.0% of those age 65 or over.

School system

Artesia is served by the Artesia Public School District with the following schools:

Artesia High School (grades 10 – 12) Artesia Junior High School (grades 8 – 9) Artesia Intermediate School (grades 6 – 7) Central Elementary School (grades 1 – 5) Hermosa Elementary School (grades 1 – 5) Roselawn Elementary School (grades 1 – 5) Yeso Elementary School (grades 1 – 5) Yucca Elementary School (grades 1 – 5) Grand Heights Early Child Ctr. (kindergarten)

The Artesia Bulldogs play in 4A football division and have won 27 state titles (mostly in 3A), 25 since 1957. Head Coach and Athletic Director, Cooper Henderson, also a former player, has led the Bulldogs to 12 titles.

Content Source: Wikipedia

Santa Fe, NM

Santa Fe, New Mexico

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Santa Fe, New Mexico
State Capital
La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís
Santa Fe's Downtown Area Santa Fe’s Downtown Area
Flag of Santa Fe, New Mexico Flag Official seal of Santa Fe, New Mexico Seal
Nickname(s): The City Different
Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico
Coordinates: 35°40′2″N 105°57′52″WCoordinates: 35°40′2″N 105°57′52″W
Country United States
State New Mexico
County Santa Fe County
Founded 1610
Government
 • Mayor Javier Gonzales
 • City Council
Area
 • City 37.4 sq mi (96.9 km2)
 • Land 37.3 sq mi (96.7 km2)
 • Water 0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)
Elevation 7,260 ft (2,213 m)
Population (2010 [1])
 • City 67,947
 • Density 1,927/sq mi (744/km2)
 • Metro 144,170 (Santa Fe MSA) 1,146,049 (Albuquerque-Santa Fe-Las Vegas CSA)
Time zone MST (UTC-7)
 • Summer (DST) MDT (UTC-6)
ZIP codes 87500-87599
Area code(s) 505
FIPS code 35-70500
GNIS feature ID 0936823
Website www.santafenm.gov

Santa Fe (/ˌsæntəˈf/; (Tewa: Ogha Po’oge, Navajo: Yootó)) is the capital of the state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in the state and is the seat of Santa Fe County. Santa Fe is the oldest capital city in the United States and the oldest city in New Mexico. Santa Fe (meaning “holy faith” in Spanish) had a population of 69,204 in 2012. It is the principal city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque-Santa Fe-Las Vegas Combined Statistical Area. The city’s full name when founded was La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís (“The Royal Town of the Holy Faith of St. Francis of Assisi”).[2]

History

Spain and Mexico

Santa Fe settlers are “churlish types” who are “accustomed to live apart from each other, as neither fathers nor sons associate with each other.”

—Governor Fermín de Mendinueta, c. 1776.[3]

The city of Santa Fe was originally occupied by a number of Pueblo Indian villages with founding dates between 1050 to 1150. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900. A Native American group built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today’s Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west; the village was called Ogapoge.[4] The Santa Fe River provided water to people living there. The Santa Fe River is a seasonal waterway which was a year round stream until the 1700s.[5] As of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers.[6]

Don Juan de Oñate led the first effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico’s second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, however, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. In 1610, he made it the capital of the province, which it has almost constantly remained,[7] making it the oldest state capital in the United States.

Santa Fe, 1846–1847

Except for the years 1680–1692, when, as a result of the Pueblo Revolt, the native Pueblo people drove the Spaniards out of the area known as New Mexico, later to be reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas, Santa Fe remained Spain’s provincial seat until the outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. In 1824 the city’s status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution.

United States

The Republic of Texas map showing lands claimed by Texas after 1836 and present-day outlines of states superimposed on the boundaries of 1836–1845.

The Republic of Texas had claimed Santa Fe as part of the western portion of Texas along the Rio Grande when it seceded from Mexico in 1836. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, Texas, with the aim of gaining control over the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was easily captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico, and Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into the city to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U.S. officially gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled “Spain 1776″, showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule.[8]

American visitors saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote:

“I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported. The country around it is barren. At the North stands a snow-capped mountain while the valley in which the town is situated is drab and sandy. The streets are narrow… A Mexican will walk about town all day to sell a bundle of grass worth about a dime. They are the poorest looking people I ever saw. They subsist principally on mutton, onions and red pepper.”

—letter from an American traveler, 1849 [9]

The re-construction of the St. Francis Cathedral with the plaza visible (1885)

Santa Fe, 1882. The railroad era.

In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived; in 1853 he became bishop of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado and traveled to France, Rome, Tucson, Los Angeles, St. Louis, New Orleans and Mexico City. He built Saint Francis Cathedral and shaped Catholicism in the region until his death in 1888.[10]

For a few days in March 1862, the Confederate flag of General Henry Sibley flew over Santa Fe, until he was forced to withdraw by Union troops, who destroyed his logistical trains following the battle of Glorietta Pass.

On October 21, 1887, “The Padre of Isleta”, Anton Docher went to New Mexico where he was ordained as a priest in the St Francis Cathedral of Santa Fe by Bishop Jean-Baptiste Salpointe. After a few years spent in Santa Fe,[11] Bernalillo and in Taos,[12] he arrived in Isleta on December 28, 1891. He wrote an interesting ethnological article published in The Santa Fé Magazine on June,1913, in which he describes the early 20th century’s life in the Pueblos.[13]

Santa Fe was originally envisioned as an important stop on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. But as the tracks progressed into New Mexico, the civil engineers decided that it was more practical to go through Lamy, a town in Santa Fe County to the south of Santa Fe. A branch line was completed from Lamy to Santa Fe in 1880[14] and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad extended the narrow gauge Chili Line from the nearby city of Española to Santa Fe in 1886,[15] but the result of bypassing Santa Fe was a gradual economic decline. This was reversed in part through the creation of a number of resources for the arts and archaeology, notably the School of American Research, created in 1907 under the leadership of the prominent archaeologist Edgar Lee Hewett. The first airplane to fly over Santa Fe was piloted by Rose Dugan, carrying Vera von Blumenthal as passenger. Together they started the development of the Pueblo Indian pottery industry, a major contribution to the founding of the annual Santa Fe Indian Market.

In 1912, New Mexico became the United States of America‘s 47th state, with Santa Fe as its capital.

20th century

1921 Fiesta parade, Santa Fe. Palace of the Governors in background.

1912 Plan

In 1912, when the town had only 5,000 people, the city’s civic leaders designed and enacted a sophisticated city plan that incorporated elements of the City Beautiful movement, the city planning movement, and the German historic preservation movement. It anticipated limited future growth, considered the scarcity of water, and recognized the future prospects of suburban development on the outskirts. The planners foresaw conflicts between preservationists and scientific planners. They set forth the principle that historic streets and structures be preserved and that new development must be harmonious with the city’s character.[16]

Artists and tourists

The mainline of the railroad bypassed Santa Fe, and it lost population. However artists and writers, as well as retirees, were attracted to the cultural richness of the area, the beauty of the landscapes and its dry climate. Local leaders began promoting the city as a tourist attraction. The city sponsored architectural restoration projects and erected new buildings according to traditional techniques and styles, thus creating the “Santa Fe style”. Edgar L. Hewett, founder and first director of the School of American Research and the Museum of New Mexico in Santa Fe, was a leading promoter. He began the Santa Fe Fiesta in 1919 and the Southwest Indian Fair in 1922 (now known as the Indian Market). When he tried to attract a summer program for Texas women, many artists rebelled saying the city should not promote artificial tourism at the expense of its artistic culture. The writers and artists formed the Old Santa Fe Association and defeated the plan.[17]

Japanese American internment camp

During World War II, Santa Fe was the location of a Japanese American internment camp. Beginning in June 1942, the Department of Justice held 826 Japanese American men arrested after Pearl Harbor in a former Civilian Conservation Corps site that had been acquired and expanded for the purpose. Although there was a lack of evidence and no due process, the men were held on suspicion of fifth column activity. Security at Santa Fe was similar to a military prison, with twelve-foot barbed wire fences, guard towers equipped with searchlights, and guards carrying rifles, side arms and tear gas.[18] By September, the internees had been transferred to other facilities — 523 to War Relocation Authority concentration camps, 302 to Army internment camps — and the site was used to hold German and Italian nationals.[19] In February 1943, these civilian detainees were transferred to D.O.J. custody and the camp was expanded to take in 2,100 men segregated from the general population of Japanese American inmates, mostly Nisei and Kibei who had renounced their U.S. citizenship and other “troublemakers” from the Tule Lake Segregation Center.[18] In 1945, four internees were seriously injured when violence broke out between the internees and guards in an event known as the Santa Fe Riot. The camp remained open past the end of the war; the last detainees were released in mid 1946, and the facility was closed and sold as surplus soon after.[19] The camp was located in what is now the Casa Solana neighborhood.[20]

Geography

Astronaut Photography of Santa Fe New Mexico taken from the International Space Station (ISS)

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.4 sq mi (96.9 km2), of which, 37.3 sq mi (96.7 km2) of it is land and 0.077 sq mi (0.2 km2) of it (0.21%) is water.

Santa Fe is located at 7,199 feet (2134 m) above sea level, making it the highest state capital in the United States.[21]

Climate

Sangre de Cristo Mountains to the East of Santa Fe: a winter sunset after a snowfall

Santa Fe experiences a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), with chilly winters, and very warm summers. The 24-hour average temperature in the city ranges from 30.3 °F (−0.9 °C) in December to 70.1 °F (21.2 °C) in July. Due to the relative aridity and elevation, average diurnal temperature variation exceeds 25 °F (14 °C) in every month, and 30 °F (17 °C) much of the year. The city usually receives 6 to 8 snowfalls a year between November and April. Heaviest rainfall occurs in July and August, with the arrival of the North American Monsoon.

[hide]Climate data for Santa Fe, New Mexico (1981–2010 normals), elevation 6,756 ft (2,059.2 m)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 65 (18) 73 (23) 77 (25) 84 (29) 96 (36) 99 (37) 102 (38.9) 96 (36) 94 (34) 87 (31) 75 (24) 65 (18) 102 (38.9)
Average high °F (°C) 43.5 (6.4) 48.2 (9) 55.9 (13.3) 64.7 (18.2) 74.2 (23.4) 83.5 (28.6) 85.9 (29.9) 83.4 (28.6) 77.7 (25.4) 66.5 (19.2) 53.1 (11.7) 43.2 (6.2) 65.0 (18.3)
Average low °F (°C) 17.5 (−8.1) 21.5 (−5.8) 26.1 (−3.3) 32.3 (0.2) 41.0 (5) 49.4 (9.7) 54.4 (12.4) 53.3 (11.8) 46.5 (8.1) 35.5 (1.9) 24.6 (−4.1) 17.4 (−8.1) 35.0 (1.7)
Record low °F (°C) −14 (−26) −18 (−28) −6 (−21) 10 (−12) 23 (−5) 31 (−1) 38 (3) 36 (2) 26 (−3) 5 (−15) −12 (−24) −17 (−27) −18 (−28)
Precipitation inches (mm) .60 (15.2) .53 (13.5) .94 (23.9) .77 (19.6) .94 (23.9) 1.29 (32.8) 2.33 (59.2) 2.23 (56.6) 1.54 (39.1) 1.33 (33.8) .85 (21.6) .83 (21.1) 14.18 (360.2)
Snowfall inches (cm) 4.0 (10.2) 2.9 (7.4) 4.4 (11.2) .4 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.0 (2.5) 2.3 (5.8) 8.0 (20.3) 23 (58)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 3.4 3.7 4.7 4.0 4.7 5.6 9.6 10.3 6.3 5.2 4.0 4.2 65.7
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.9 1.5 1.3 .4 0 0 0 0 0 .3 .8 2.2 8.4
Source: NOAA,[22] Weather.com (records)[23]

Santa Fe style and “The City Different”

“This year we are making a studied conscious effort not to be studied or conscious. Santa Fe is now one of the most interesting art centers in the world and you, O Dude of the East, are privileged to behold the most sophisticated group in the country gamboling freely… And Santa Fe, making you welcome, will enjoy itself hugely watching the Dude as he gazes. Be sure as you stroll along looking for the quaint and picturesque that you are supplying your share of those very qualities to Santa Fe, the City Incongruous… Be yourself, even if it includes synthetic cowboy clothes, motor goggles and a camera.” —1928 Santa Fe Fiesta Program[24]

Palace of the Governors, established 1609–10

The Spanish laid out the city according to the “Laws of the Indies”, town planning rules and ordinances which had been established in 1573 by King Philip II. The fundamental principle was that the town be laid out around a central plaza. On its north side was the Palace of the Governors, while on the east was the church that later became the Cathedral Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi.

An important style implemented in planning the city was the radiating grid of streets centering from the central Plaza. Many were narrow and included small alley-ways, but each gradually merged into the more casual byways of the agricultural perimeter areas. As the city grew throughout the 19th century, the building styles evolved too, so that by statehood in 1912, the eclectic nature of the buildings caused it to look like “Anywhere USA”.[25] The city government realized that the economic decline, which had started more than twenty years before with the railway moving west and the federal government closing down Fort Marcy, might be reversed by the promotion of tourism.

To achieve that goal, the city created the idea of imposing a unified building style – the Spanish Pueblo Revival look, which was based on work done restoring the Palace of the Governors. The sources for this style came from the many defining features of local architecture: vigas (rough, exposed beams that extrude through supporting walls, and are thus visible outside as well as inside the building) and canales (rain spouts cut into short parapet walls around flat roofs), features borrowed from many old adobe homes and churches built many years before and found in the Pueblos, along with the earth-toned look (reproduced in stucco) of the old adobe exteriors.

After 1912 this style became official: all buildings were to be built using these elements. By 1930 there was a broadening to include the “Territorial”, a style of the pre-statehood period which included the addition of portales (large, covered porches) and white-painted window and door pediments (and also sometimes terra cotta tiles on sloped roofs, but with flat roofs still dominating). The city had become “different”. However, “in the rush to pueblofy”[26] Santa Fe, the city lost a great deal of its architectural history and eclecticism. Among the architects most closely associated with this “new” style are T. Charles Gaastra and John Gaw Meem.

Recently, Santa Fe has seen an increase in suburban sprawl. Homes are territorial or pueblo style and stuccoed with flat roofs

By an ordinance passed in 1957, new and rebuilt buildings, especially those in designated historic districts, must exhibit a Spanish Territorial or Pueblo style of architecture, with flat roofs and other features suggestive of the area’s traditional adobe construction. However, many contemporary houses in the city are built from lumber, concrete blocks, and other common building materials, but with stucco surfaces (sometimes referred to as “faux-dobe”, pronounced as one word: “foe-dough-bee”) reflecting the historic style.

In a September 2003 report by Angelou Economics, it was determined that Santa Fe should focus their economic development efforts in the following seven industries: Arts and Culture, Design, Hospitality, Conservation Technologies, Software Development, Publishing and New Media, and Outdoor Gear and Apparel. Three secondary targeted industries for Santa Fe to focus development in are health care, retiree services, and food & beverage. Angelou Economics recognized three economic signs that Santa Fe’s economy was at risk of long term deterioration. These signs were; a lack of business diversity which tied the city too closely to fluctuations in tourism and the government sector; the beginnings of urban sprawl, as a result of Santa Fe County growing faster than the city, meaning people will move farther outside the city to find land and lower costs for housing; and an aging population coupled with a rapidly shrinking population of individuals under 45 years old, making Santa Fe less attractive to business recruits.

The seven industries recommended by the report “represent a good mix for short-, mid-, and long-term economic cultivation.” [27]

In 2005/2006, a consultant group from Portland, Oregon, prepared a “Santa Fe Downtown Vision Plan” to examine the long-range needs for the “downtown” area, roughly bounded by the Paseo de Peralta on the north, south and east sides and by Guadalupe Street on the west. In consultation with members of community groups, who were encouraged to provide feedback, the consultants made a wide range of recommendations in the plan now published for public and city review.[28]

Government

Santa Fe City officials[29]
Mayor Javier Gonzales
Mayor Pro-Tem Peter Ives
City manager Brian Snyder
City attorney Kelley Brennan (interim)[30]
City clerk Yolanda Y. Vigil, CMC
Municipal Judge Ann Yalman
Chief of police Eric Garcia
Fire chief Erik Litzenberg
City councilors Pattie Bushee, Signe Lindel, Peter Ives, Joseph Maestas, Carmichael Domiguez, Christopher River, Ronald S. Trujillo, Bill Dimas

The city of Santa Fe is a charter city.[31] It is governed by a mayor-council system. The city is divided into four electoral districts, each represented by two councilors. Councilors are elected to staggered four-year terms and one councilor from each district is elected every two years.[31]:Article VI

The municipal judgeship is an elected position and a requirement of the holder is that they be a member of the state bar. The judge is elected to four-year terms.[31]:Article VII

The mayor is the chief executive officer of the city and is a member of the governing body. The mayor has numerous powers and duties, but does not vote with the councilors except to break ties.[31]:Article V Day-to-day operations of the municipality are undertaken by the city manager’s office.[31]:Article VIII

Federal representation

The Joseph M. Montoya Federal Building and Post Office serves as an office for U.S. federal government operations. It also contains the primary United States Postal Service post office in the city.[32] Other post offices in the Santa Fe city limits include Coronado,[33] De Vargas Mall,[34] and Santa Fe Place Mall.[35] The U.S. Courthouse building, constructed in 1889, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.[36]

Arts and culture

The Inn at Loretto, a Pueblo Revival style building near the Plaza in Santa Fe

The city is well known as a center for arts that reflect the multicultural character of the city; it has been designated as a UNESCO Creative City in Design, Crafts and Folk Art.[37] Each Wednesday the alternative weekly newspaper, The Santa Fe Reporter, publishes information on the arts and culture of Santa Fe; and each Friday, the daily Santa Fe New Mexican publishes Pasatiempo, its long-running calendar and commentary on arts and events.

In 2012, the city was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the U.S. by CBS Money Watch and U.S. News.[38][39]

Visual art and galleries

The city and the surrounding areas have a high concentration of artists. They have come over the decades to capture the natural beauty of the landscape, the flora and the fauna. One of the most well-known New Mexico–based artists was Georgia O’Keeffe, who lived for a time in Santa Fe, but primarily in Abiquiu, a small village about 50 mi (80 km) away. The New Mexico Museum of Art and Georgia O’Keeffe Museum own several of her works. O’Keeffe’s friend, western nature photographer Eliot Porter, died in Santa Fe.

Canyon Road, east of the Plaza, has the highest concentration of art galleries in the city, and is a major destination for international collectors, tourists and locals. The Canyon Road galleries showcase a wide array of contemporary, Southwestern, indigenous American, and experimental art, in addition to Russian, Taos Masters, and Native American pieces.

Sculpture

Dinosaur family sculpture, south of I-25 off Cerrillos Road, 2008.

There are many outdoor sculptures, including many statues of Francis of Assisi, and several other holy figures, such as Kateri Tekakwitha. The styles run the whole spectrum from Baroque to Post-modern. Notable sculptors connected with Santa Fe include John Connell, Luis Jiménez, Rebecca Tobey and Allan Houser.

Literature

Numerous authors followed the influx of specialists in the visual arts. Well-known writers like D.H. Lawrence, Cormac McCarthy, Kate Braverman, Douglas Adams, Roger Zelazny, Alice Corbin Henderson, Mary Austin, Witter Bynner, Dan Flores, Paul Horgan, Rudolfo Anaya, George R. R. Martin, Mitch Cullin, Evan S. Connell, Richard Bradford, John Masters, Jack Schaefer, Michael Tobias, Hampton Sides and Michael McGarrity are or were residents of Santa Fe. Walker Percy lived on a dude ranch outside of Santa Fe before returning to Louisiana to begin his literary career.

Music, dance, and opera

The interior of the Crosby Theatre at the Santa Fe Opera; viewed from the mezzanine

Performance Santa Fe, formerly the Santa Fe Concert Association, is the oldest presenting organization in Santa Fe. Founded in 1937, Performance Santa Fe brings celebrated and legendary musicians as well as some of the world’s greatest dancers and actors to the city from August through May.[40] The Santa Fe Opera‘s productions take place between late June and late August each year. The city also hosts the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival which is held at about the same time, mostly in the St. Francis Auditorium and in the Lensic Theater. Also in July and August, the Santa Fe Desert Chorale holds its summer festival. Santa Fe has its own professional ballet company, Aspen Santa Fe Ballet, which performs in both cities and tours nationally and internationally. Santa Fe is also home to internationally acclaimed Flamenco dancer’s Maria Benitez Institute for Spanish Arts which offers programs and performance in Flamenco, Spanish Guitar and similar arts year round. Other notable local figures include the National Dance Institute of New Mexico and German New Age musician Deuter.

Museums

Santa Fe has many museums located near the downtown Plaza:

Several other museums are located in the area known as Museum Hill:[41]

Sports

The New Mexico Style were an American Basketball Association franchise founded in 2005, but reformed in Texas for the 2007–8 season as the El Paso S’ol (which folded without playing an ABA game in their new city). The Santa Fe Roadrunners were a North American Hockey League team, but moved to Kansas to become the Topeka Roadrunners. Santa Fe’s rodeo, the Rodeo De Santa Fe, is held annually the last week of June.[43] In May 2012 Santa Fe became the home of the Santa Fe Fuego of the Pecos League of Professional Baseball Clubs. They play their home games at Fort Marcy Park. Horse Racing events were held at The Downs at Santa Fe from 1971 until 1997.

Economy

Science and technology

Santa Fe has had an association with science and technology since 1943 when the town served as the gateway to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a 45 minute drive from the city. In 1984, the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) was founded to research complex systems in the physical, biological, economic, and political sciences. It hosts such Nobel laureates as Murray Gell-Mann (physics), Philip Warren Anderson (physics), and Kenneth Arrow (economics). The National Center for Genome Resources (NCGR)[44] was founded in 1994 to focus on research at the intersection among bioscience, computing, and mathematics. In the 1990s and 2000s several technology companies formed to commercialize technologies from LANL, SFI, and NCGR. This community of companies has been dubbed the “Info Mesa.”

Due to the presence of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories and the Santa Fe Institute, and because of its attractiveness for visitors and an established tourist industry, Santa Fe routinely serves as a host to a variety of scientific meetings, summer schools, and public lectures, such as International q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing, Santa Fe Institute’s Complex Systems Summer School,[45] LANL’s Center For Nonlinear Studies[46] Annual Conference, and others.

Tourism

Touch the country [of New Mexico] and you will never be the same again.

—D.H. Lawrence, c. 1917.[47]

San Miguel Chapel in Santa Fe is said to be the oldest standing church structure in the US. The adobe walls were constructed around A.D. 1610

El Santuario de Guadalupe, 100 S. Guadalupe St. (downtown), is the oldest extant shrine to the Virgin of Guadalupe in the United States.[48]

After State government, tourism is a major element of the Santa Fe economy, with visitors attracted year-round by the climate and related outdoor activities (such as skiing in years of adequate snowfall; hiking in other seasons) plus cultural activities of the city and the region. Tourism information is provided by the convention and visitor bureau[49] and the chamber of commerce.[50]

Most tourist activity takes place in the historic downtown, especially on and around the Plaza, a one-block square adjacent to the Palace of the Governors, the original seat of New Mexico’s territorial government since the time of Spanish colonization. Other areas include “Museum Hill”, the site of the major art museums of the city as well as the Santa Fe International Folk Art Market, which takes place each year during the second full weekend of July. The Canyon Road arts area with its galleries is also a major attraction for locals and visitors alike.

Some visitors find Santa Fe particularly attractive around the second week of September when the aspens in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains turn yellow and the skies are clear and blue. This is also the time of the annual Fiestas de Santa Fe, celebrating the “reconquering” of Santa Fe by Don Diego de Vargas, a highlight of which is the burning Zozobra (“Old Man Gloom”), a 50-foot (15 m) marionette.

Popular day-trips in the Santa Fe area include locations such as the town of Taos – about 70 mi (113 km) north of Santa Fe. The historic Bandelier National Monument and the Valles Caldera can be found about 30 mi (48 km) away. In addition, Santa Fe’s ski area, Ski Santa Fe, is about 16 mi (26 km) north of the city.

Architectural highlights

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 4,846
1860 4,635 −4.4%
1870 4,756 2.6%
1880 6,635 39.5%
1890 6,185 −6.8%
1900 5,603 −9.4%
1910 5,073 −9.5%
1920 7,326 44.4%
1930 11,176 52.6%
1940 20,325 81.9%
1950 27,998 37.8%
1960 34,394 22.8%
1970 41,167 19.7%
1980 48,053 16.7%
1990 52,303 8.8%
2000 61,109 16.8%
2010 67,947 11.2%

As of the 2010 census, there were 67,947 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city residents was 78.9% White, 2.1% Native American; 1.4% Asian; and 3.7% from two or more races. A total of 48.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Non-Hispanic Whites were 46.2% of the population.[51]

As of the census[52] of 2000, there were 62,203 people, 27,569 households, and 14,969 families living in the city. The population density was 1,666.1 people per square mile (643.4/km2). There were 30,533 housing units at an average density of 817.8 per square mile (315.8/km2). According to the Census Bureau’s 2006 American Community Survey, the racial makeup of the city was 75% White, 2.5% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.4% African American, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 16.9% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 44.5% of the population.

There were 27,569 households out of which 24.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.6% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.7% were non-families. 36.4% of all households were made up of individuals living alone and 10.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.90.

The age distribution was 20.3% under 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 28.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,392, and the median income for a family was $49,705. Males had a median income of $32,373 versus $27,431 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,454. About 9.5% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.

Sister cities

Santa Fe has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International: [53]

Transportation

Air

Santa Fe is served by the Santa Fe Municipal Airport. Currently, American Eagle provides regional jet service to and from Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, which began on June 11, 2009. An additional flight to and from Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport was added on November 19, 2009 alongside a new flight to and from Los Angeles International Airport. Since December 2012, Great Lakes Airlines has offered twice daily flight service between Santa Fe, NM and Denver, CO.[54] Many people fly into the Albuquerque International Sunport and connect by other means to Santa Fe.[55][56]

Road

Santa Fe is located on I-25. In addition, U.S. Route 84 and U.S. Route 285 pass through the city along St. Francis Drive. NM-599 forms a limited-access road bypass around the northwestern part of the city.

In its earliest alignment (1926–1937) U.S. Route 66 ran through Santa Fe.[57]

Public transportation

Santa Fe Trails operates a number of bus routes within the city and also provides connections to regional transit.

The New Mexico Rail Runner Express is a commuter rail service operating in Valencia, Bernalillo (including Albuquerque), Sandoval, and Santa Fe Counties. In Santa Fe County, the service uses 18 miles (29 km) of new right-of-way connecting the BNSF Railway‘s old transcontinental mainline to existing right-of-way in Santa Fe used by the Santa Fe Southern Railway. Santa Fe is currently served by three stations, Santa Fe Depot, South Capitol, and Santa Fe County/NM 599. A fourth station, Zia Road, is under construction and does not yet have a planned opening date.

New Mexico Park and Ride, a division of the New Mexico Department of Transportation, and the North Central Regional Transit District operate primarily weekday commuter coach/bus service to Santa Fe from Torrance, Rio Arriba, Taos, San Miguel and Los Alamos Counties in addition to shuttle services within Santa Fe connecting major government activity centers.[58][59] Prior to the Rail Runner’s extension to Santa Fe, New Mexico Park and Ride operated commuter coach service between Albuquerque and Santa Fe.

Rail

Along with the New Mexico Rail Runner Express, a commuter rail line serving the metropolitan areas of Albuquerque and Santa Fe, the city or its environs are served by two other railroads. The Santa Fe Southern Railway, now mostly a tourist rail experience but also carrying freight, operates excursion services out of Santa Fe as far as Lamy, 15 miles (24 km) to the southeast. The Santa Fe Southern line is one of the United States’ few rails with trails. Lamy is also served by Amtrak‘s daily Southwest Chief for train service to Chicago, Los Angeles, and intermediate points. Passengers transiting Lamy may use a special connecting coach/van service to reach Santa Fe.

Trails

Multi-use bicycle, pedestrian, and equestrian trails are increasingly popular in Santa Fe, for both recreation and commuting. These include the Dale Ball Trails,[60] a 30-mile (48 km) network starting within two miles (3.2 km) of the Santa Fe Plaza; the long Santa Fe Rail Trail to Lamy; and the Santa Fe River Trail, which is in development. Santa Fe is the terminus of three National Historic Trails: El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail, the Old Spanish National Historic Trail, and the Santa Fe National Historic Trail.

Education

Santa Fe Public Library

Santa Fe has 3 major High Schools:

The public schools in Santa Fe are operated by Santa Fe Public Schools, The city has three private liberal arts colleges: St. John’s College, Santa Fe University of Art and Design (formerly the College of Santa Fe), and Southwestern College; plus Santa Fe Community College and the Institute of American Indian Arts.

The city has six private college preparatory high schools: Santa Fe Waldorf School,[61] St. Michael’s High School, Desert Academy,[62] New Mexico School For The Deaf, Santa Fe Secondary School, and Santa Fe Preparatory School. Santa Fe is home to the Santa Fe Indian School, an off-reservation school for Native Americans. Santa Fe is also the location of the New Mexico School for the Arts, a public-private partnership, arts-focused, high school. There are also several charter schools, including Monte del Sol, the Academy for Technology and the Classics and Tierra Encantada Charter High School. The city has many private elementary schools as well, including Little Earth,[63] Santa Fe International Elementary School,[64] Rio Grande School, Desert Montessori School,[65] La Mariposa Montessori,The Tara School, Fayette Street Academy, and The Santa Fe Girls’ School.The Academy for the Love of Learning located in southeast Santa Fe.

Notable residents

See also

References

  1. “Census 2010 News | U.S. Census Bureau Delivers New Mexico’s 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting”. 2010.census.gov. 2011-03-15. Retrieved 2012-05-16.
  2. “Santa Fe (New Mexico, United States) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia”. Britannica.com. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  3. “Ojo Caliente Land Grant”. New Mexico Office of the State Historian. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
  4. Hazen-Hammond, Susan (1988). A Short History of Santa Fe. San Francisco: Lexikos. p. 132. ISBN 0-938530-39-9.
  5. Hazen-Hammond, Susan (1988). A Short History of Santa Fe. San Francisco: Lexikos. p. 132. ISBN 0-938530-39-9.
  6. Handwerk, Brian. “Santa Fe Tops 2007 List of Most Endangered Rivers”. National Geographic. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
  7. “Santa Fe – A Rich History”. City of Santa Fe. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
  8. Garrard, Lewis H. (1955) [1850]. Wah-to-yah and the Taos Trail. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.
  9. Letter in The Arkansas Banner, 8-31-1849 in Marta Weigle; Kyle Fiore (2008). Santa Fe and Taos: The Writer’s Era, 1916-1941. Sunstone Press. p. 3.
  10. Paul Horgan, Lamy of Santa Fe; a biography (1975)
  11. The Indian sentinel, Volumes 7-10-Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, 1927
  12. Leo Crane.Desert drums: the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico, 1540–1928.1972.Rio Grande Press
  13. Anton Docher. The Quaint Indian Pueblo of Isleta.The Santa Fé Magazine,1913,vol.7,n°7,p.29-32.
  14. “Santa Fe Southern Railway, Santa Fe, NM”. Sfsr.com. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  15. “Santa Fe, NM”. Ghostdepot.com. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  16. Harry Moul, and Linda Tigges, “The Santa Fe 1912 City Plan: A ‘City Beautiful’ and City Planning Document,” New Mexico Historical Review, Spring 1996, Vol. 71 Issue 2, PPSOE 135–155
  17. Carter Jones Meyer, “The Battle between ‘Art’ and ‘Progress’: Edgar L. Hewett and the Politics of Region in the Early-Twentieth-Century Southwest,” Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Sept 2006, Vol. 56 Issue 3, PPSOE 47–61
  18. “Santa Fe (detention facility)” Densho Encyclopedia (accessed 17 Jun 2014)
  19. Jeffrey Burton, Mary Farrell, Florence Lord, Richard Lord. Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites: “Department of Justice Internment Camps: Santa Fe, New Mexico” National Park Service, 2000 (accessed 19 Mar 2013).
  20. http://www.newmexicohistory.org/filedetails.php?fileID=453
  21. United States Geological Survey
  22. “Station Name: NM SANTA FE 2″. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-06-29.
  23. “Monthly Averages for Santa Fe, NM”. The Weather Channel. Retrieved September 25, 2010.
  24. quoted in Santa Fe & Taos: the Writers Era, ISBN 978-0-86534-650-5
  25. Hammett, p.14
  26. Hammett, p.15: “They ripped off the cast-iron storefronts, tore down the gingerbread trim, took off the Victorian brackets and dentils…”
  27. “Cultivating Santa Fe’s Future Economy: Target Industry Report”. Angelou Economics. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
  28. “Santa Fe Downtown Vision Plan”. March 2007. Retrieved Dec 26, 2012.
  29. “Elected Officials – City of Santa Fe”. santafenm.gov. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
  30. “City Attorney”. City of Santa Fe. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
  31. Santa Fe Municipal Charter (PDF). City of Santa Fe. March 4, 2008. Retrieved October 15, 2008.
  32. “Post Office Location – Santa Fe main”. United States Postal Service. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
  33. “Post Office Location – Coronado”. United States Postal Service. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
  34. “Post Office Location – De Vargas Mall”. United States Postal Service. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
  35. “Post Office Location – Santa Fe Place Mall”. United States Postal Service. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
  36. “National Register Information System”. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
  37. “Santa Fe, United States UNESCO City of Design, Crafts and Folk Art”. unesco.org. United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization. 2008-09-28. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
  38. The 10 Best Places to Retire
  39. The 10 Best Places to Retire in 2012
  40. Performance Santa Fe Web site
  41. “Museum Hill homepage”.[dead link]
  42. “Museum of Spanish Colonial Art homepage”.
  43. “Santa Fe Rodeo”. rodeosantafe.org.
  44. “National Center for Genome Resources”. Ncgr.org. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  45. “Complex Systems Summer School”. Santafe.edu. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  46. “Center For Nonlinear Studies”.
  47. Shukman, Henry (February 7, 2010). “Santa Fe, N.M., and How It Came to Be as It is”. New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  48. “Santuario de Guadalupe, Santa Fe, New Mexico”. Waymarking.com. Retrieved 2012-05-16.
  49. “Santa Fe.org”. Santa Fe.org. February 3, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  50. “Santa Fe Chamber of Commerce”. Santafechamber.com. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  51. “Santa Fe (city), New Mexico”. State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau.
  52. “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  53. “Sister Cities”. The Official Website of Santa Fe, New Mexico. Retrieved 2014-08-05.
  54. “Restored flights to Denver lift mayor’s State of the City address”.
  55. “Southwest Airlines Cities]”. Southwest Airlines.
  56. “Airline Service For New Mexico Capital In Limbo”. aero-news.net. November 13, 2007.
  57. Description and Historic Context for Pre-1937 Highway Alignments at U.S. National Park Service website, excerpted from Kammer, David, “Route 66 Through New Mexico: Re-Survey Report”.
  58. “New Mexico Park and Ride Schedule”. New Mexico Department of Transportation. December 22, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2009.
  59. “NCRTD Bus Routes Overview”. North Central Regional Transportation District. Retrieved March 23, 2009.[dead link]
  60. “Dale Ball Trails and Connecting Trails and Biking Trails”. Santafenm.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  61. “Santa Fe Waldorf School K–12″.
  62. “Desert Academy”.
  63. “Little Earth School”.
  64. “Santa Fe International Elementary School K–8″.
  65. “Desert Montessori School”.

Further reading

  • Hammett, Kingsley, Santa Fe: A Walk Through Time, Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2004 ISBN 1-58685-102-0
  • Dick, R. H. My Time There: The Art Colonies of Santa Fe and Taos, New Mexico 1956–2006 .(2007)
  • LaFarge, John Pen. Turn Left at the Sleeping Dog: Scripting the Santa Fe Legend, 1920–1955 (2003)
  • Larson, Jonathan, “Santa Fe”, Rent, 1996
  • Lovato, Andrew Leo. Santa Fe Hispanic Culture: Preserving Identity in a Tourist Town (2007)
  • Noble, David Grant. Santa Fe: History of an Ancient City (2nd ed. 2008) excerpt and text search
  • Tobias, Michael Charles. The Adventures of Mr. Marigold (2005)

[1]

  • Wilson, Chris, The Myth of Santa Fe: Creating a Modern Regional Tradition, Albuquerque, NM: UNM Press, 1997 ISBN 0-8263-1746-4

Content Source: Wikipedia